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Combination Models of Prevention

Just as combination treatment attacks HIV at different phases of virus replication, combination prevention includes various behavior strategies that informed individuals, who are in a position to decide for themselves, can choose to employ at different times in their lives to reduce their risk of exposing themselves, or others, to HIV. (Global HIV Prevention Working Group, 2003).

ABC Model of Prevention

A is for Abstinence - not engaging in sexual intercourse or delaying sexual debut. Whether abstinence occurs by delaying sexual debut or by adopting a period of abstinence at a later stage, access to information and education about alternative safer sexual practices is critical to avoid HIV infection when sexual activity begins or is resumed.

B is for Being faithful (sometimes Be safer) - being faithful to one's partner or reducing the number of sexual partners. Having fewer sexual partners reduces the risk of HIV exposure. However, strategies to promote faithfulness among couples only lead to lower incidence of HIV when neither partner has HIV infection and both are consistently faithful.

C is for Correct and Consistent Condom use - condoms reduce the risk of HIV transmission for sexually active people, couples in which one person is HIV-positive, sex workers, and their clients. Research has found that if people do not have access to condoms, other prevention strategies lose much of their potential effectiveness.

A, B and C interventions can be adapted and combined in a balanced approach that will vary according to the cultural context, the population being addressed, and the phase of the epidemic.

Source: 2004 Report on the global AIDS epidemic, UNAIDS

SAVE model of Prevention

S refers to safer practices - covering all the different modes of HIV transmission. For example: safe blood for blood transfusion; barrier methods for penetrative sexual intercourse; sterile needles and syringes for injecting; safer methods for scarification; and adoption of universal medical precautions.

A refers to available medications. - Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy is by no means the only medical intervention needed by people living with HIV. Long before it may be necessary, or desirable, for a person to commence ARV therapy, some HIV associated infections will have to be treated. Treating these infections results in better quality of life, better health, and longer term survival. Every person needs good nutrition and clean water, and this is especially true for people living with HIV and AIDS.

V refers to voluntary counseling and testing. - Individuals who know their HIV status are in a better position to protect themselves from infection; and if they are HIV-positive, from infecting another. Someone who is HIV-positive can be provided with information and support to enable them to live positively. People who are ignorant of their HIV status, or who are not cared for, can be sources of new HIV infections.

E refers to empowerment through education. - It is not possible to make informed decisions about any aspect of HIV or personal behavior without access to all the relevant facts. Inaccurate information and ignorance are two of the greatest factors driving HIV and AIDS related stigma and discrimination. Correct, non-judgmental information needs to be disseminated to all, both inside and outside the church. This will assist people to live positively - whatever their HIV status - and to break down barriers which HIV has created between people and within communities. Education also includes information on good nutrition, stress management, and the need for physical exercise.

Source: INERELA+